What is Olive Leaf Extract?

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Olive Leaf Extract oleuropein is an extraordinary 100% natural herbal antibacterial/antiviral extract. Obtained from specific parts of the olive tree (Olea europaea), this new proprietary phytochemical extract is not only safe, but is also a nontoxic immune system builder.

World Health Organization raised the swine flu alert to its highest level, saying the H1N1 virus has spread to enough countries to be considered a global pandemic

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To Date

Olive Leaf Extract has been used clinically in its present form for over a year. Living up to its promising background, it has already, in its short time, demonstrated considerable therapeutic action against many common and chronic conditions. One frequently heard comment is that they feel more energy and a greater sense of well being.

What Professionals Are Saying

Dr. James R. Privitera, M.D., a physician in Covina, California, began using Olive Leaf Extract early in 1995. "I think we are just beginning to scratch the surface for what seems to be a very promising and unique herbal with multiple applications," he says. "We continually hear from patients about new and unexpected benefits. Although we do not have long term perspectives as yet, preliminary clinical results are very positive."

Dr. Phil Selinsky, at the Institute for Holistic Studies in Santa Barbara reports: "Some patients have told me that Olive Leaf Extract took down their dental infections in a matter of hours! The response is quite impressive."

Biochemist Arnold Takemoto: "it [Olive Leaf Extract] sure has power; particularly against viruses that are more tenacious!" "It fills a hole that we haven't been able to fill before. It gives us a new, effective tool."

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History

While Olive Leaf Extract in capsule form is new, the knowledge of the medicinal properties of the tree (Olea europaea) date back to the early 1800's where it was used in liquid form as a very effective treatment for malarial infections. According to the 1854 Pharmaceutical Journal of Provincial Transactions, pages 353 and 354(a), the doctors at that time stated that the properties of the tree, Olea europaea, deserved more extensive investigation.

In the early 1900's, a bitter compound was found in the leaves of certain olive trees called "Oleuropein." This compound was determined to be part of the olive tree's powerful disease resistant structure. In 1962, an Italian researcher recorded that oleuropein had the ability to lower blood pressure in animals. Other European researchers validated that claim and also found it to increase blood flow in the coronary arteries, relieve arrhythmias and prevent intestinal muscle spasms. (b) The search began for the chemical agent within oleuropein that would be the most important medically. A Dutch researcher found it. The chemical was elenolic acid. Further European research determined this compound to have strong bacteriocidal capabilities as well. (c,d,k,l) (See listing under Viruses, Bacterias and Parasitic Protozoans)

In the late 60's and early 70's, The Upjohn Companies' test studies were published by The American Society for Microbiology (e) in regards to a new multifunctional monoterpene which they had isolated from various parts of the olive tree. The compound was called calcium elenolate, a crystalline salt form of elenolic acid. When they tested this compound it was found to be virucidal against all viruses for which it was tested. The compound acted effectively at low concentrations without any harmful influence on host cell mechanisms. It was also found to be extremely safe and nontoxic, even at high doses. While it worked extremely well in-vitro, it was unsuccessful in-vitro. When injected into the blood stream, the compound bound quickly to the blood serum protein and rendered itself ineffective. They were unable to overcome this problem and terminated their research. During this same period, other companies had interest in the compound and performed various tests, but also lost interest. (f,g) Then in 1990, interest was renewed and the process of bringing the remarkable product Olive Leaf Extractto market began.

Finally in 1995, through independent scientific research, success was achieved by East Park Research, Inc., opening the way for clinical application of this natural olive leaf extract and Olive Leaf Extract was born. This 100% natural product is classified as a food supplement and currently no other known herbal product in the history of the world is demonstrating itself to be as medicinally wide spectrum.

How It Works

According to laboratory tests, calcium elenolate (derived from oleuropein) kills viruses by interfering with certain amino acid production processes. This interference prevents virus shedding, budding or assembly at the cell membrane. Studies suggest that this compound has the ability to penetrate infected host cells and irreversibly inhibit viral replication. (e,g) In retroviruses, this compound neutralizes the production of the reverse transcriptase enzyme (f,g) and is believed to also neutralize the protease enzyme as well. These enzymes are essential for retroviruses such as HIV to alter the RNA of a healthy cell.

Researchers in Europe investigated the properties of oleuropein and suggested that it inactivated bacteria by dissolving the outer lining of the microbes. More recent studies (h,i) of oleuropein show that it seems to protect low density lipoprotein from oxidation, thus reducing the LDL (the bad cholesterol). Another research study in France remarks that Olea europaea leaf extracts show extremely high antioxidative qualities. (j)

The new Olive Leaf Extract extract not only confirms the earlier test finding (less the serum binding problem), but seems to show itself as an immune system builder by directly stimulating phagocyte production (phogocytosis). It also contains natural flavinoids and esters that create a structural complex that infectious microorganisms may not readily develop a resistance to. Biochemists have determined that the extract has multiple iridoids and that the synergy of them working together is the reason for the wide spectrum effect.

Safety

A safety study on calcium elenolate was laboratory tested with animals and published by The Upjohn Company in 1970. (e) The study concluded that even in doses several hundred times higher than recommended, no toxic or other adverse side effects appeared.

No known studies have been conducted with regards to pregnancy or nursing mothers. Also no known studies of interactions between Olive Leaf Extract and other pharmaceuticals have been performed.

Side Effects

(1) Some people experience what is known as Herxheimers Reaction. This is a detoxification reaction and not a counteraction to the product.

If any of these symptoms should occur - greater fatigue, diarrhea, headaches, muscle/joint aches or flu-like symptoms, temporarily discontinue taking Olive Leaf Extract or cut back on the amount taken until the body can eliminate the toxic waste. Most individuals experience no such effect.

(2) A few individuals have reported a slight headache due to detoxification. If this should occur, any common pain reliever seems to work to curb the discomfort.

There are no toxic chemicals used in the preparation of our Olive Leaf Extract and all excipients are those commonly used in the food, vitamin or pharmaceutical industry in the United States.

 

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Other Diseases

It is suspected that many new viruses, retroviruses, bacterias and protozoans will be added to the list in the near future. While case studies have already shown that Olive Leaf Extract is attacking other viruses and bacterial conditions, the unexpected seems to be happening. Several long term sufferers of chronic fungal infections have noticed regression or clearing. Many individuals with fibromyalgia, Epstein-Barr Virus, or chronic fatigue syndrome are reporting that they are feeling much better after taking it.

A major breakthrough may shortly happen!

Olive Leaf Extract seems to be lowering the bad cholesterol (LDL) level 30% or more in clinical trials for several individuals without exercise or extreme dietary changes.

'' The Future - Here Now!

The Los Angeles Times, August 24, 1995, front page story reveals the need for products such as EDEN(TM).

Germs Far More Resistant to Penicillin

"To counteract the rise in drug resistant microbes, researchers suggest... that doctors cut back on the indiscriminate use of antibiotics." L.A. Times 8-24-95

"Over the last decade, medical scientists have grown increasingly concerned about the emergence of antibiotic resistance as seemingly vanquished microbes have bound back, newly endowed with an ability to fend off the antibiotic drugs that were the glory of 20th century medicine." L.A. Times 8-24-95

"In addition to pneumonia bugs... TB, gonorrhea, staph infections, certain intestinal diseases have also humbled medical scientists by proving that the victory over infectious diseases was not final" L.A. Times 8-24-95

Potency

Olive Leaf Extract is distributed in bottles containing 60-500 mg. capsules of extract. See our product list for High quality Olive Leave Extract... We searched the entire world for the best quality product at the lowest cost.

Dosage

While the recommended dosage is one (1) capsule every six (6) hours, dosage requirements may vary for efficacy and should be individualized.

Olive Leaf Extract in Action

One of Dr. Privitera's patients is a 17-year-old professional ice skater who says that one or two capsules a day helps sustain the high energy level she requires for practice and performance.

"In my clinic, as in many others, fatigue is the number one complaint," says Privitera. "I am not speaking of the serious chronic fatigue situation but just day-in and day-out tiredness, a result, I believe, of average nonexercising Americans eating their standard American diet of dead food. The average person, of course, is not going to change eating habits and is not going to go on a regular exercise program. Based on my experience, I suggest that Olive Leaf Extract offers something safe, effective and energizing for the malaise of the masses."

Dr. Privitera says he is continually surprised by some of the reported benefits from Olive Leaf Extract, such as improved psoriasis, normalization of arrhythmias (heart beat irregularities), and less pain from hemorrhoids, toothaches and chronically achy joints.

One woman with bad allergies reported significant improvement and a level of energy she hadn't felt for years.

One elderly male with severe arrhythmia reported that his condition had vastly improved in about eight days just from taking Olive Leaf Extract alone. A woman with mild arrhythmia said her condition improved substantially when she took Olive Leaf Extract and then slowly returned to its irregular state after she ran out of the product.

"Given what we know about the protective cardiovascular effects of proanthocyanadins and flavinoids, the phytochemical compounds found in grape seeds, onions, kale, green beans, broccoli and other vegetables, it will be interesting to see what benefits Olive Leaf Extract and its special array of phytochemicals prove to offer for heart and arterial health," says Dr. Privitera.

Another dramatic development involved a 15-year-old girl with juvenile diabetes. The teenager had been regularly taking 350 units of insulin daily to control her condition. After one month on the standard recommended dose of Olive Leaf Extract (one capsule every six hours or the equivalent of four a day), she was able to maintain similar control with just 220 units.

Years ago, researchers found that the natural olive leaf compounds from which Olive Leaf Extract is derived could lower blood sugar. Dr. Privitera hopes to study the supplement's effects on other diabetics to determine whether it might indeed reduce insulin requirements.

Biochemist Arnold Takemoto, who designs patient nutritional programs for physicians in Arizona, has found Olive Leaf Extract to be an effective addition to his arsenal of natural healing. He also says it has helped some patients rapidly rid themselves of stubborn viral infections they have had for years. As an example, he cites the case of a patient who had suffered from shingles (herpes zoster) for nine years. Within two days of starting Olive Leaf Extract and other supplements, the condition cleared up.

 

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Patient Reports

Reports from patients dramatically reveal some of the many potential uses of Olive Leaf Extract. The accounts appearing here, however, are intended as information only and should not be construed by readers to mean that the supplement will be effective or provide relief in all such cases.

Chronic Fatigue

"Chronic fatigue patients are often helped by Olive Leaf Extract," says Dr. Privitera. "It is not a cure-all, but the results are substantive enough so that many individuals want to continue taking the supplement."

Many chronic fatigue patients suffer from an associated depression. Privitera reports a number of cases where patients went through the "die-off" period and came out highly energized and no longer depressed.

One female patient described to Dr Privitera what she called a "really quite unbelievable" recovery within one month of taking the supplement. "For the last few years, I have not been feeling like myself," she wrote. "I've had little energy and enthusiasm for anything. This is not my usual nature. I attributed it to weight, unemployment and just being down. My head was always somewhat achy and I couldn't figure out why. The only way I could describe it would be as a constant low degree headache which never left. I started taking Olive Leaf Extract and noticed an immediate elevation of my spirits. What I liked about the product was that it was effective but gentle and didn't make me hyper or unable to sleep. Quite the contrary, I slept better.

"After a few days, I began to notice more energy and a stronger sense of well-being. The cobwebs in my brain started to diminish. I also noticed a bad shoulder and a bad knee started to get better. The pain associated with these joints remarkably improved. The only side effects I had were a couple of headaches in the beginning which disappeared with some aspirin. (Editor's note: A possible symptom of detoxification.) I started to feel much, much better. It was amazing to see the fatigue disappear and my general health improve. I couldn't believe I felt so well.

"I stopped taking the product after thirty days and experienced no withdrawal or anything. I simply felt better and that has stayed the same for the last sixty days without the product."

A female patient diagnosed with Epstein-Barr Virus reported that the supplement "has helped me very much in overcoming the tiredness I feel. It has given me energy."

Flu and Colds

Olive Leaf Extract may offer a potent tool against the common cold and flu. Consider the following letter written on August 1, 1995, by a female patient with persistent flu symptoms:

"I became ill with the flu in February and had several immune boosters, extra vitamins and three antibiotics. My fever was 102-103 every afternoon and this continued even after the antibiotics. I developed paralyzing chest and abdominal pain, being confined to the couch for weeks, not able to hardly walk. My weight dropped to 84 pounds. Medical tests revealed nothing specifically wrong.

"I started taking Olive Leaf Extract on July 18. Within a few days, my temperature started dropping and it is slowly and steadily going down so that some days I haven't needed to take Tylenol to reduce it. The pain is subsiding gradually and my appetite and strength are returning."

At the time of her next medical examination, on August 15, the patient's temperature had been normal for a week and she had taken no painkillers for two weeks.

An elementary school teacher with a history of asthma and super-susceptibility to colds and flu believes that Olive Leaf Extract has armor-plated her against the legion of germs that run rampant throughout her classroom.

"I used to get sick all the time," she says. "One school year, I got strep throat eight times. If you sneezed at me, the chances are I would get sick. Not anymore. When many kids in my class were coughing, sneezing and blowing their noses before Christmas, I caught a slight cold and that's it."

"The product," says Dr. Privitera, "may be a true antiviral, inasmuch as it selectively blocks an entire virus-specific system in the infected host. It appears, moreover, to offer us healing effects that are not covered by pharmaceutical antibiotics. We believe that many people who lead stressful lives or who may be particularly susceptible to colds and viruses may benefit from long term use of Olive Leaf Extract as a preventive agent."

Viruses, Bacterias and Parasitic Protozoans Laboratory tests suggest that EDENTM is effective against the following diseases:

Herpes (MRS)

Sindbis

Parainfluenza 1 (Sendai)

Salmonella Tyhimurium

Vaccinia

Reovirus (Deering)

ATCC

Pseudomonas Fluorescens

Pseudorabies

Moloney Murine Leukemia

Para. 1 (Sendai) TUC

P. Solanacearum

Influenza A (PRS)

Rauscher Murine Leukemia

Para. 1 (C-35, HA-2)

P. Lachrymans

Newcastle Disease

Moloney Sarcoma

Para. 2 (CA, Greer)

Erwinia Carotovora

Parainfluenza 3

Influenza A/NWS (HONI)

Lactobacillus Plantarum W50

B. Tracheiphila

CoxsackieA 21

In. A/PR8/34 (HONI)

L. Brevis 50

Xanthomonas Vesicatoria

Encephalomyocarditis

In. A/FM/1/47 (HONI)

Pediococcus Cerevisiac 39

Corynesbacterium Michiganese

Polio 1

In. A/Ann Arbor/1/57 (HIN2)

Leuconostoc Mesenteriodes 42

Plasmodium FalciparumVirax

Polio 2

In. A/Hong Kong/Richardson/68 (H3N2)

Staphylococcus Aureus

Malariac

Polio 3

In. B/Lee/40

Bacillus Subtilis

 

Vesicular Stomititus

In. B/Maryland/1/59

Escherichia Coli

 

 

 

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Herpes

Dr. Privitera has given Olive Leaf Extract to many herpes patients. One male patient in his early 40's experienced frequent lesions along with fatigue. In a week his lesions disappeared and his energy increased. He wrote to Dr. Privitera to say that Olive Leaf Extract was the only medicine that ever eliminated his herpes. "Even the most minute blisters are gone," he wrote.

A female patient had an unusually stubborn herpetic cold sore in the mouth for four months. The woman also suffers from cancer, thus there may be some significant immune exhaustion involved. After one week on Olive Leaf Extract, the sore disappeared.

These type of clinical experiences are consistent with a private 1993 herpes study in humans using an earlier, weaker and ethanol (alcohol-based) form of Olive Leaf Extract. Of the six subjects involved, all reported symptomatic relief. Three said their lesions disappeared in 36 to 48 hours. The remaining three were placed on a stronger dose. One of them said that three days later most of the lesions were gone. The other two individuals were newly infected with the virus and were likely experiencing a much higher level of virus shedding. On the stronger dose, they reported also doing better. All six subjects said this procedure produced better results than Acyclovir, a medication they had previously used.

HIV

In reference to HIV, Positive Health News (m) reports that a man from Oakland, CA, who after taking Olive Leaf Extract 4 times a day for 3-1/2 months, without any other medications, lowered his HIV viral load 47%, his CD4 and CD8 count rose 24% and 27%, his WBC was increased 38% and his absolute Lymphocyte count rose 40%. I'd say Olive Leaf Extract made a difference!

Multiple Symptoms

One woman with chronic fatigue, colds, asthma and vaginal yeast infections had excellent results. Five weeks after starting Olive Leaf Extract, she returned to see Dr. Privitera. She told the physician that all her symptoms had virtually cleared up! The woman, a teacher, was able to take on new projects she couldn't consider before.

I use it myself chiefly to lower my cholesterol and reduce my blood pressure. I am no longer requiring high blood pressure pills!... this among other reasons...

A male patient with multiple symptoms wrote as follows:

"I became ill in December 1993 and was diagnosed with a stomach and prostate infection. I was treated with high doses of antibiotics, but never fully recovered. I was troubled with multiple symptoms, some of which were back and neck pain, fatigue, flu-like symptoms, swollen glands, sinus and digestive problems. I was subsequently diagnosed with fibromyalgia (chronic fatigue syndrome) and the physicians recommended Prozac-type antidepressants and anti-inflammatory drugs. But I refused them.

"I began taking Olive Leaf Extract along with my regular vitamin and mineral supplements in August of 1995 at the rate of one capsule every six hours. I increased the dosage after five days and began feeling better. I tried different dosages for a number of days until I found the optimum amount for me. Today I take three capsules four times a day. My overall health has greatly improved and so has my energy and disposition.

"One very interesting thing has occurred. My fingernails were infected by whatever infection I had, leaving them wrinkled-looking. Now they are slowly returning to their normal shape."

"The product," says Dr. Privitera, "may be a true antiviral, inasmuch as it selectively blocks an entire virus-specific system in the infected host. It appears, moreover, to offer us healing effects that are not covered by pharmaceutical antibiotics. We believe that many people who lead stressful lives or who may be particularly susceptible to colds and viruses may benefit from long term use of Olive Leaf Extract as a preventive agent."

Rheumatoid Arthritis

A male patient wrote the following letter: "Five years ago, I was diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis. After taking all the medicines I could stand with no real results, I was informed about some nutritional supplements. One of them was Olive Leaf Extract. After taking it for three weeks, I noticed more flexibility in my fingers, elbows and neck. There was marked relief of muscle tension surrounding joints. Overall, I am enjoying Olive Leaf Extract with my daily routine."

A number of other patients have reported significant relief of joint pain. It is unclear at this time what healing mechanism is being triggered by the olive leaf compound.

Fungus and Yeast Infections

Improvement of fungal infections has been reported by a number of patients. A woman with an infection of the large toenail reported that within two months after starting Olive Leaf Extract, the condition was about three-quarters healed. She had the infection for more than five years previous and no medication or natural agent had helped. Dr. Privitera himself reported a toenail fungal infection he had cleared up as a result of his using Olive Leaf Extract.


More than 10 million Americans are estimated to have disfiguring fungal nail infections, a widely under-recognized medical problem. It is common among athletes, elderly individuals, people who stand a lot or wear the same shoes every day, who wear artificial fingernails and patients with AIDS, cancer and diabetes. Drugs taken for cancer and AIDS lower resistance and are believed to make people more susceptible to infection.

Recently, a new drug was approved - the first in 35 years - for the condition. The drug is called Sporanox and is said to be more effective than older antiffngal medications.

According to an article by Patricia Anstett of the Knight-Ridder Newspapers, two 100 milligram pills are taken daily for about three months at a cost of $900. Older drugs, taken for twelve months or more, cost double or more that amount over the longer duration. Even with the new drug, the condition can return once the medication is discontinued.

Results to date suggest that Olive Leaf Extract offers a natural and much less expensive avenue of self-treatment.

One male patient reported amazing results for a fungus infection of the tongue he had for 30 years. "All kinds of diets, treatments and regimes were tried but to no avail," he reported. "Within three weeks on EDEN(TM), the fungus disappeared."

More than a dozen of Privitera's patients with candidiasis have reported significant improvements with Olive Leaf Extract. They speak of less infections, allergies, fatigue, dullness and more energy One woman said she was able to clean out her garage, which was full of dust, and before Olive Leaf
Extract, that would have been impossible for her.

Bacterial Infections

The bactericidal effect of Olive Leaf Extract was dramatically evident in the case of a 64-year-old physician bedridden for four years since suffering a major stroke. He also had recurrent bladder infections which would cause considerable pain, smelly urine and fever.

All efforts to control the condition had failed, including a $1,000 antibiotic specially prepared for him. The patient experienced constant discomfort. His urine was cloudy and "looked like soup." Often, it contained blood. After one month on Olive Leaf Extract, the infections had vanished and after six months, the condition has not recurred. He has been taking a standard dose of four capsules daily.

The patient also used to suffer from frequent allergies and colds and took medication frequently to keep these in check. The incidence and severity have been significantly minimized with Olive Leaf Extract and he requires considerably less medicine.

Skin Conditions

After two months with Olive Leaf Extract, a male patient reported "significant" improvement for a chronic scalp infection he had suffered with for more than ten years. "It had flared up causing very painful eruptions and lesions in my scalp which, over time, have killed quite a few hair follicles," he said. "Modern medical doctors and dermatologists have been unable to eradicate (the condition). I had resolved myself to the fact that there was no cure. I am satisfied that I am getting some significant results from using Olive Leaf Extract. My scalp remains a little tender, but the eruptions have all but ceased. I am continuing to use the product about twice a day, and the skin color is much healthier than it has been in recent time.

"No matter what drug therapy my doctors have prescribed in the past, none has provided me with the level of relief I am currently experiencing. I would gladly recommend this product to others suffering chronic skin ailments."

A female patient reported better energy and disappearance of a rash in thirty days..The rash occurred in winter, or during times of extreme cold.

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Tropical Illnesses

Olive Leaf Extract may have considerable therapeutic potential in the treatment of tropical infections such as malaria and dengue. Malaria is caused by protozoans carried by infected mosquitoes. In 1906, olive leaf extracts were found to be far superior to quinine in the treatment of malarial infections. Quinine was preferred, however, because it was easier to administer. Now in capsule form, the olive leaf may make a strong comeback. Preliminary reports from Latin America are promising. A full blown case of malaria at a clinic in Mexico was reported 100 percent better with a dosage schedule of two Olive Leaf Extract capsules every six hours.

According to the clinic report, the 34-year-old female patient recovered progressively over a six month period. At the end of that time, the report said, "she was without any of the malaria symptoms, not even anemia or shivers. Her breath is good, her state of mind excellent and she does not show any signs of chronic or contagious disease."

There have been recent reports of cases of malaria in Texas. According to Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports, "malaria continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly because of the development of drug-resistant strains, and is a continuing concern in the United States because of increased international migration, travel and commerce.

In 1995, large outbreaks of dengue were reported by health authorities in twelve Latin American and Caribbean countries. Research is under way to develop a vaccine but as of yet there is no specific treatment available.

In light of the alarming rise in the number of deaths from infectious diseases in this country, the advent of a natural healing compound such as Olive Leaf Extract may be a timely development for individuals interested in natural, alternative approaches. According to federal researchers, deaths from infectious diseases, formerly on the decline, rose 58 percent from 1980 to 1992, elevating this category of illness from number five to number three among the killer diseases, behind heart disease and cancer.

Although the AIDS epidemic accounts for most of the increase, researchers have also documented an unusual rise in mysterious respiratory infections among the elderly and blood infections among people of all ages. Eliminating the influence of AIDS, the death rate during the same period for all other infectious diseases had increased by 22 percent.

Back in 1978, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a report which asserted that by the year 2000, sources other than Western technological medicine would have to be employed in order for all people to have adequate health care. The report further recommended that traditional forms of healing and medicine, such as the use of herbs, be pursued to meet the growing needs of a dynamically increasing world population. The recommendation was adopted by the organization. With the emergence of strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, natural products such as EDEN(TM) take on greater importance. Even if new antibiotics are developed, new infectious bacteria would emerge that are resistant to new drugs. In the case of herbal medicinals, their~complex chemistry renders them potentially more therapeutic against a wide variety of microorganisms for which pharmaceutical drugs may be impotent.

Research or clinical experience to date suggests that Olive Leaf Extract be considered as a healing participant in the treatment of conditions caused by or associated with a virus, retrovirus, bacterium or protozoan. Among such conditions may be influenza, the common cold, meningitis, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), encephalitis, herpes I and II, human herpes virus 6 and 7, shingles, HIV/ARC/AIDS, chronic fatigue, hepatitis B, pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhea, malaria, dengue, bacteremia, severe diarrhea, blood poisoning, dental, ear, urinary tract and surgical infections.

 

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The Truth About Olive Leaf Extract

"Calcium Elenolate is not in Olive Leaf Extract!"

Truly Olive Leaf Extract is one of the most amazing herbal extracts to come along in the 21st century, but what has come with it is a lot of confusion!

Have you ever heard any of these statements or words?

We alone concentrate right-handed calcium elenolate.
We invented the olive leaf extract.
We discovered the secret that The UpJohn Company missed.
You've got to have Oleuropein above 17% before it will work.
There's only one method to produce olive leaf extract that's truly therapeutic.
Ours is patented.
Elenolic acid or stereo isomers.

If you have been researching olive leaf extracts you have probably heard several of these statements and have become extremely confused, especially since there are 23+ companies offering what they consider a good olive leaf extract.

I can almost hear what you're saying, What ever happened to, "It works, backed by proof." The answer is, MARKETING!

Companies have to sell their products and if they can convince you that theirs is the best, better or the only one, hopefully, you'll buy it. But BEWARE, many things being said about olive leaf extract are not true!

It's time to end the confusion and reap the truth. We'll back it with proof so you'll know where to go and won't be confused any more. I'm going to explain, in layman's terms, some complicated things, but bear with me, there's light at the end of the tunnel!

After reviewing the list of constituents that come out of an olive leaf extract and not finding Calcium elenolate in it. I called Harold Renis, a virologist who used to work for The Upjohn Company. He wrote many of the articles that pertained to Calcium elenolate at the time of testing. He agreed that Calcium elenolate came from acid hydrolysis of elenolic acid. Whereby they boiled elenolic acid with calciun carbonate to produce Calcium elenolate.

It finally made sense! It doesn't happen in the body. It was produced in a lab. So what is it that's working as an antiviral in olive leaf extract? To understand this we have to start with what's in a good olive leaf extract.

Olive leaf extract has 98 constituents that can be pulled out of the raw leafs. (a)(m)

(See the Handbook of Phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs & other economic plants list By James A. Duke, Author in the back of this article.) As you look over these constituents the first thing you'll notice is that there is no Calcium elenolate or Elenolic acid, but what you do find is Oleuropein.

Oleuropein, one of the coustituents of olive leaf extract, is only (-) left handed in nature. (b)(c) And is noted as the antiviral particulate of the extract.(f)

By left-handed we mean that Oleuropein does not have stereo isomers (left & right) or twin-molecules as do many compounds according to the Merck Index on phytochemicals. Oleuropein, when ingested, breaks down into other compounds, one of which is elenolic acid. (Elenolic acid has been found to be highly virucidal in lab tests.) (d)(e)(g)

Two enzymes do the job of breaking down Oleuropein to predominately (+) Right-handed elenolic acid in your blood stream. (h)(f)

The enzymes, esterase & beta-glucosidase automatically break down Oleuropein to predominately (+) right-handed elenolic acid in the blood stream. Elenolic acid has altered isomers or twin molecules. The right-handed molecule of elenolic acid does not bind blood serum protein and remains virucidal. That's the secret of why it works. This means if you have Oleuropein in your extract it will work to some degree in your body depending on how it was processed.

Right-handed elenolic acid does not bind blood serum protein.

In the late 70's The Upjohn Company hydrolyzed (pulled out) elenolic acid from Oleuropein.(I) After mineral acid hydrolysis duly the left-handed form of elenolic acid was produced. Then they took one of its hydrolysates, a salt of elenolic acid, calcium elenolate, which was also only left-handed, and tested it in the test tube and in humans. It worked great in the test tube (in vitro), but blood serum protein bound in all the human studies (in vivo) rendering it ineffectual. The right-handed molecule however was never used.

The difference is that Oieuropeln works much differently In the body, Bio-chemist W. L. C. Veer claimed that Oleuropein, when ingested, automatically hydrolyzcd in-vivo to elenolic acid and produces a hypotensive effect. He believed the hydrolyzing takes place because esterase & beta-glucosidase enzymes are always present in your blood and should yield predominately right-handed, but also some left-handed molecules of elenolic acid.

After talking with Harold Renis, he informed me that they (The UpJohn Co.) believed that the left-handed molecule was the virucidal form, so they disregarded the right-handed form. (j) Further investigation and independent studies have proved that W. L. C. Veer was correct, the rlght-handed molecule of elenolic acid does not blood serum protein bind. It was further noted by Veer that it is beta-glucosidase that hydrolyzes Oleuropein to the dextrorotory or the (+) right-hand form of elenolic acid, which we now know, does not blood serum protein bind. (e)(k)(t)

Calcium elenolate is not in olive leaf extracts nor does it occur in your body.

When researching olive leaf extract components, calcium elenolate is never shown as a component.(a) That is because calcium elenolate is one of the hydrolysates (a salt) of elenolic acid. It is a synthesized compound. It was only produced in the lab by mineral acid hydrolysis, boiling calcium carbonate with elenolic acid, which produces calcium elenolate.(j)(l)(t) No scientific or medical literature exists on the body conversion of elenolic acid to calcium elenolate.

Calcium elenolate cannot be concentrated (right or left) from an olive leaf extract.

Since calcium elenolate doesn't appear in olive leaf extracts, (a) it's impossible to concentrate it. However, there are some companies that would like you to believe they do. (n)(See Reference z) Why? Again, Marketing! They've got to be different, right?

Oleuropein can be concentrated!

Since it is Oleuropein in the olive leaf extract, not elenolic acid or calcium elenolate, Oleuropein is then what is concentrated from an extract. For every molecule of Oleuropein concentrated from olive leaf extract you concentrate one molecule of right-handed elenolic acid. The more Oleuropein you concentrate, the more elenolic acid you have. (e)(h)(p)

Who really discovered the solution to blood serum protein binding?

One company claims that in 1995 they discovered the solution to the blood serum protein binding problem that The Upjohn Company came up against in the 70's.(n) But the truth is, it was Willaim Robert Fredrickson, a lay chemist, in 1989, that uncovered the mystery.(o) Fredrickson found that when Oleuropein entered the blood stream it was automatically changed predominately to right handed elenolic acid because of the two enzymes esterase & beta-glucosidase.

William Fredrickson published papers (which are in the Library of Congress)(h) to this effect. The vice president of the company, claiming to have solved the mystery, used to be William Fredrickson's partner in 1992 (NFN Company) before he was vice president of the current claiming company. (Gee, wonder where he got the information on how to make a good olive leaf extract!)

Who really discovered the solution to blood serum protein binding?In 1995 there was only one company making an olive leaf extract.

Therefore, in 1995 there was only one extraction method.(s) It is true that all conventional methods of manufacture will produce an extract that is useless in the body. All conventional methods are too hot and would burn up Oleuropein.(n) Oleuropein is classified as an iridoid by nature and iridoids can be extremely heat sensitive and unstable.(r) It's now 1999 and there are other unconventional methods that are producing good olive leaf extracts.

 

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Patents & patents pending.

Currently there are several companies who have a patent or a patent pending either on a process or an extract of olive leaf. It's amazing that the one company that says that they alone discovered the mystery to the blood serum protein-binding problem and has patent protection for their proprietary extraction process also claims they concentrate right-reflecting calcium elenolate.

What's amazing about this statement is that their United States Patent #5,714,150 doesn't say that! It says, in its summary, "It is therefore an object of the invention to provide a method for extracting Oleuropein in a form which retains medicinal activity in vivo. It is a further object of the invention to provide Oleuropein in a form which undergoes hydrolysis in vivo to produce elenolic acid which retains its antiviral activity, and which does not bind to proteins in the blood." (See anything about calcium elenolate there?) "Applicants believe the resultant Oleuropein contain a high proportion of R (right-handed) Oleuropein as compared with L (left-handed) Oleuropein."
This is absurd because, as discussed earlier, Oleuropein is only left-handed in nature.

*** You can't produce right-handed Oleuropein, it doesn't exist! ***

That truly would make their product different wouldn't it! (t)(u)(v)

Where is the original olive leaf extract?

Since extracts have been made for hundreds of years, no one really knows! We do know however, that in 1811 Dr. Pallas used his own liquid extract to stop malaria fever out breaks on the island of Mytelene. France has also produced powdered olive leaf extracts for more than 50 years. The current company labeling their product "The Original Olive Leaf Extract" pertains to the brand name only and not that they invented it. Others, sadly, are claiming to be the original and they are not! (w)(x)

Currently there is no extract in the retail market today that contains higher than 16% Oleuropein when teasted by the Merck Index HPLC test procedure.

Many companies claim very high percentages of Oleuropein however when tested by the Merck lndex's HPLC test guidelines none have shown to be higher than 16%. (y) (aa)

A balanced (synergistic) extract of flavanoids & phytochemicals works much better than an extract with high Oleuropein alone.(o)(q)

All extracts are not manufactured the same way!

Not everyone is privy to formulas that work really well. Consider Coca cola. Do you think there's someone out there that has their formula? Of course not, even though many have tried, like Pepsi etc. The same is true with the olive leaf extract. The formulation of extracts and their process can produce quiet different results. There are some olive leaf extracts on the market that work really well and others that do not. And unfortunately there are some that are worthless.(y) (See Exhibit 5)

 

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Noteworthy Facts About
Olive Leaf Extracts

Oleuropein (pronounced O-lee-u-ro-peen), when extracted out of olive leaves, along with the other phytochemicals (a), works as a very wide spectrum natural antibiotic,(o)(q) but it does not work on all things for all people. There are a certain amount of people that this wonderful extract will not work on. How can you tell you are one of those people? You can't! You simply have to try it.

It would be a benefit to you to be able to call upon a company or person with a good amount of experience with Olive leaf Extracts so that you can determine the right protocol for you. Each condition can vary greatly in relation to your body weight & metabolism. Many times people believe it doesn't work for them simply because they aren't taking enough of the extract or are using a weak brand.

As good as olive leaf extracts are, they should not be taken along with antibiotics, additional amino acids or any other mold or fungus derivatives. It is not that they will do you harm, rather Olive leaf extract will see those things as invaders and kill them cancelling the positive effect of the extract, instead of working on what's important, healing you. This can be a frustrating experience. So, avoid taking them together.

To help avoid the die-off effect (Herxheimer reaction) drink plenty of water and if shortly after starting on olive leaf extract you experience cold or flu like symptoms, decrease the dosage you take by one capsule each time you take them until the symptoms go away, I would recommend not stopping it all together, as you will have to start your protocol all over.(k)

If you are concerned about the amount of Oleuropein yonr prodact really has or if it is a good extract, call the company on the bottle and ask for a certificate of analysis on the batch number located usually on the bottom of the container you've purchased.

Also ask for a copy of the method by which they determined their percentage from the HPLC (high-pressure liquid chromatography) test. If they can't supply you with it I'd be suspicious!



If after reading this article you should have any other questions, please feel free to call 1-760-728-0747 and ask for Richard Hall, President of AMERIDEN International.

Richard L. Hall is an agriculturist & herbalist that has been involved with the process of olive leaf extract coming to market since its inception ln 1989. He harvested and provided the olive leaves to William R. Fredrickson, the original lay-chemist, who discovered and solved the problem of blood serum protein binding that The UpJohn Company had in the 70's. Mr. Hall's company provided and continued to provide all the olive leaf for commercial production of olive leaf extract in the United States up until 1998. Currently, 99% of all leaf used for production comes from outside the United States.

As President of AMERIDEN International, he and his staff are dedicated to the truth and providing proven products that help to create a happier and healthier world.

About the Author: Richard L. Hall, President of AMERIDEN International

Mr. Hall is an Agriculturist & herbalist located in Fallbrook, California.

He is one of the original four people that have been involved with the coming of the Olive leaf Extract to market since its inception in 1989. He has extensive knowledge of the olive leaf extract. and the answers to most of the questions asked regarding this wonderful product.

His company, AMERIDEN International, sells "The Original Olive Leaf Extract", a proven formula, backed by Doctors, Naturopaths & Health food Stores. AMERIDEN International is committed to providing an array of neutricuticals that are showing excellent benefits to those who are suffering.

 

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The information contained herein was derived from several sources.

Footnotes...

(a) Pharmaceutical Journal of Provincial Transactions 1854, p.353 & 354
(b) Arzneimittel-Forschung 1972, Sep-22 (9)1476-1486
(c) Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 1991,13,231-237
(d) Journal of Applied Bacteriology 1993,74,253-259
(e) Antimicrobal Agents and Chemotherapy 1969 pp.160-176
(f) Antimicrobal Agents and Chemotherapy .1975 pp.194-l99 and 421-425
(g) Nature New Biology Vol.238, Aug. 30, 1972
(h) Nutrition Research Vol.15, No.1, pp.37-51,1995
(i) Life Sciences Vol.55, No.24, pp. 1965-1971, 1994
(j) Phytochemistry Vol.31, No.4, pp.1173-1178, 1992
(k) Applied Microbiology, Nov. 1969,Vol. 18, pp.856-860
(I) Applied Microbiology, Nov.1973, Vol.26 #5, pp.777-782
(m) Keep Hope Alive, P0. Box 27041, West Allis, WI 53227

Reports from patients dramatically reveal some of the many potential uses of Olive Leaf Extract. The accounts appearing here, however, are intended as information only and should not be construed by readers to mean that the supplement will be effective or provide relief in all such cases.

Please note: This information is provided is for information purposes only because it has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. It is not intended to diagnose or prescribe and these products are not intended to treat, cure prescribe or prevent any disease. If you have a medical condition, please see your health professional. Thank you.

 

Olive Leaf


Olive Leaf is used for the treatment of conditions associated with viruses, retroviruses, bacteria, or protozoa including influenza, the common cold, meningitis, Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), encephalitis, herpes I and II, human herpes virus 6 and 7, shingles, HIV/AIDS, chronic fatigue and hepatitis B. It is also used for pneumonia, tuberculosis, gonorrhoea, malaria, dengue, bacteraemia, severe diarrhoea, blood poisoning and dental, ear, urinary tract and surgical infections. Other uses include hypertension, diabetes, allergic rhinitis, improving renal and digestive function and as a diuretic and antipyretic.

In animal experiments Olive Leaf preparations demonstrate multiple properties including antispasmodic, hypotensive, antiarrhythmic and hypoglycemic, bronchodilator, coronary dilator, antipyretic and diuretic properties. The active constituent oleuropein has bacteriostatic and antioxidant activity.

Olive Leaf may be beneficial in fungus and yeast infections, frequent colds, asthma, vaginal yeast infections, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, bacterial infections, herpes, AIDS, chronic fatigue, antioxidant, flu and colds.

 

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Published Clinical Studiesclin

 1
Anti-HIV activity of olive leaf extract (OLE) and modulation of host cell gene expression by HIV-1 infection and OLE treatment.

Lee-Huang S, Zhang L, Huang PL, Chang YT, Huang PL.

 

Department of Biochemistry, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Sylvia.lee-huang@med.nyu.edu

We investigated the antiviral activity of olive leaf extract (OLE) preparations standardized by liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry (LC-MS) against HIV-1 infection and replication. We find that OLE inhibits acute infection and cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1 as assayed by syncytia formation using uninfected MT2 cells co-cultured with HIV-1-infected H9 T lymphocytes. OLE also inhibits HIV-1 replication as assayed by p24 expression in infected H9 cells. These anti-HIV effects of OLE are dose dependent, with EC(50)s of around 0.2 microg/ml. In the effective dose range, no cytotoxicity on uninfected target cells was detected. The therapeutic index of OLE is above 5000. To identify viral and host targets for OLE, we characterized gene expression profiles associated with HIV-1 infection and OLE treatment using cDNA microarrays. HIV-1 infection modulates the expression patterns of cellular genes involved in apoptosis, stress, cytokine, protein kinase C, and hedgehog signaling. HIV-1 infection up-regulates the expression of the heat-shock proteins hsp27 and hsp90, the DNA damage inducible transcript 1 gadd45, the p53-binding protein mdm2, and the hedgehog signal protein patched 1, while it down-regulates the expression of the anti-apoptotic BCL2-associated X protein Bax. Treatment with OLE reverses many of these HIV-1 infection-associated changes. Treatment of HIV-1-infected cells with OLE also up-regulates the expression of the apoptosis inhibitor proteins IAP1 and 2, as well as the calcium and protein kinase C pathway signaling molecules IL-2, IL-2Ralpha, and ornithine decarboxylase ODC1.

PMID: 12878215 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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In vitro antimicrobial activity of olive leaves.2

Markin D, Duek L, Berdicevsky I.

 

Department of Microbiology, Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion-Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.

We investigated the antimicrobial effect of olive leaves against bacteria and fungi. The microorganisms tested were inoculated in various concentrations of olive leaf water extract. Olive leaf 0.6% (w/v) water extract killed almost all bacteria tested, within 3 h. Dermatophytes were inhibited by 1.25% (w/v) plant extract following a 3-day exposure whereas Candida albicans was killed following a 24 h incubation in the presence of 15% (w/v) plant extract. Olive leaf extract fractions, obtained by dialysis, that showed antimicrobial activity consisted of particles smaller than 1000 molecular rate cutoffs. Scanning electron microscopic observations of C. albicans, exposed to 40% (w/v) olive leaf extract, showed invaginated and amorphous cells. Escherichia coli cells, subjected to a similar treatment but exposed to only 0.6% (w/v) olive leaf extract showed complete destruction. These findings suggest an antimicrobial potential for olive leaves.

PMID: 12870202 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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Safety evaluation of olive phenolic compounds as natural antioxidants.3

Farag RS, El-Baroty GS, Basuny AM.

 

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Free and total polyphenolic compounds were extracted from the fruits and leaves of the Picual cultivar. The safety limits of these compounds were recognized by measuring the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total lipids of rat serum. The free and total phenolic compounds (400, 800, and 1600 ppm) and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) (200 ppm) were daily ingested for 7 weeks. The administration of olive total and free phenolic compounds at 400 and 800 ppm did not cause any significant changes on ALT and AST activities and serum total lipids. These compounds at 1600 ppm caused significant increase in ALT and AST activities and the content of total lipids. Both olive phenolic compounds were superior to that of BHT in increasing HDL-cholesterol level. Nutritional experiments demonstrated that BHT at 200 ppm caused an enlargement in the kidney and liver of the rat compared with the administration of total and free olive phenolic compounds at 1200 and 1600 ppm. Microscopical examination of kidney and liver tissues of rats administered free and total phenolic compounds at 1200 ppm had the same histological character as that of control rats, while the administration of BHT (200 ppm) and phenolic compounds (1600 ppm) induced severe damage to the tissues of the rat kidney and liver.

PMID: 12775365 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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 4
Antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids isolated from Olea europaea, subspecies africana leaves.

Somova LI, Shode FO, Ramnanan P, Nadar A.

 

Department of Human Physiology, University of Durban-Westville, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa. somova@pixie.udw.ac.za

For the first time a biossay-directed study of triterpenoids isolated from the leaves of Olea europaea from Greece, from wild African olive and from a cultivar of O. europaea grown in Cape Town was reported. The experiment was undertaken since our preliminary analyses showed that the African wild olive leave is rich in triterpenoids and contain only traces of the glycoside oleuropein, which is typical for the European olive leaves. The isolate of the African wild olive leaves (AO) used in the experiments was found to contain 0.27% 1:1 mixture of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, named oleuafricein. The isolate of Greek olive leaves (GO) was found to contain 0.71% oleanolic acid, and the Cape Town cultivar (CT) contained 2.47% oleanolic acid. No ursolic acid was found in either GO or CT. The antihypertensive, diuretic, antiatherosclerotic, antioxidant and hypoglycemic effects of authentic oleanolic and ursolic acid and the three isolates (GO, AO and CT) were studied on Dahl salt-sensitive (DSS), insulin-resistant rat genetic model of hypertension. All three isolates, in a dose 60 mg/kg b.w. for 6 weeks treatment, prevented the development of severe hypertension and atherosclerosis and improved the insulin resistance of the experimental animals. GO, OA and CT isolates could provide an effective and cheap treatment of this particular, most common type of salt-sensitive hypertension in the African population. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

PMID: 12648829 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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 5
Blood pressure lowering effect of an olive leaf extract (Olea europaea) in L-NAME induced hypertension in rats.

Khayyal MT, el-Ghazaly MA, Abdallah DM, Nassar NN, Okpanyi SN, Kreuter MH.

 

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. mtkhayyal@hotmail.com

A specially prepared olive leaf extract (EFLA 943) has been tested for its blood pressure lowering activity in rats rendered hypertensive by daily oral doses of L-NAME (NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, 50 mg/kg) for at least 4 weeks. Oral administration of the extract at different dose levels at the same time as L-NAME for a period of 8 weeks showed a dose dependent prophylactic effect against the rise in blood pressure induced by L-NAME, best effects being induced by a dose of 100 mg/kg of the extract. In rats previously rendered hypertensive by L-NAME for 6 weeks and then treated with that dose of the extract for a further 6 weeks without discontinuation of L-NAME, normalisation of the blood pressure was observed. The findings confirm previous reports on the hypotensive effects of olive leaf. The special extract, EFLA 943, was shown to give consistent results with little individual variability. The antihypertensive effect of the extract may be related to a variety of factors involving reversal of vascular changes involved in the L-NAME induced hypertension.

PMID: 12489249 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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Effect of freeze dried extract of Olea europaea on the pituitary-thyroid axis in rats.6

Al-Qarawi AA, Al-Damegh MA, ElMougy SA.

 

Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

The effect of an aqueous extract of olive (Olea europaea) leaf on the thyroid activity was studied. The results suggest a stimulatory action of the extract on the thyroid, unrelated to the pituitary.

PMID: 12164280 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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 7
Radioprotective effects in vivo of phenolics extracted from Olea europaea L. leaves against X-ray-induced chromosomal damage: comparative study versus several flavonoids and sulfur-containing compounds.

Benavente-Garcia O, Castillo J, Lorente J, Alcaraz M.

 

Research and Development Department, Furfural Espanol S.A., Camino Viejo de Pliego s/n, 80320 Alcantarilla, Murcia, Spain. laboratorio@furesa.es

The radioprotective effects of a polyphenolic extract of Olea europaea L. leaves (OL); the flavonoids diosmin and rutin, which are widely used as pharmaceuticals; and the sulfur-containing compounds dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) were determined by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity, evaluating the reduction of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in bone marrow of mouse before and after X-ray irradiation. With treatment before X-irradiation, the most effective compounds were, in order, rutin > DMSO > OL > PTU > diosmin. These results showed, for the polyphenols studied, a linear correlation (r(2) = 0.965) between anticlastogenic activity and antioxidant capacity. The magnitude of protection with treatment after X-irradiation were lower, and the most effective compounds were, in order, OL > diosmin > rutin; DMSO and PTU lacked radioprotective activity. Therefore, OL is the only substance that showed a significant anticlastogenic activity both before and after X-ray irradiation treatments. Structurally, the free oxygen radicals and lipoperoxyradicals scavenging capacity and, consequently, the anticlastogenic activity of these polyphenolic compounds are based principally on the presence of specific functional groups, mainly catechol groups (rutin, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside, luteolin), that also increase the stability of the aroxyl-polyphenol radical generated in the above processes.

PMID: 12495584 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

 

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Referencesref

  1. Blumenthal M, editor. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
  2. Gruenwald J, et al. PDR for Herbal Medicines. 1st ed. Montvale, NJ: Medical Economics Company, Inc., 1998.
  3. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants. Paris, FR: Lavoisier Publishing, 1995.
  4. Gonzalez M, Zarzuelo A, Gamez MJ, et al. Hypoglycemic activity of olive leaf. Planta Med 1992;58(6):513-5.
  5. Cherif S, Rahal N, Haouala M, et al. [A clinical trial of a titrated Olea extract in the treatment of essential arterial hypertension]. J Pharm Belg 1996;51:69-71.
  6. Aziz NH, Farag SE, Mousa LA, et al. Comparative antibacterial and antifungal effects of some phenolic compounds. Microbios 1998;93:43-54.
  7. Liccardi G, D'Amato M, D'Amato G. Oleaceae pollinosis: a review. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1996;111:210-7.
  8. Pieroni A, Heimler D, Pieters L, et al. In vitro anti-complementary activity of flavonoids from olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves. Pharmazie 1996;51:765-8.

 

 

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